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Hair issues for black women are like weight issues for white women—closely tied to feelings of identity, public perception and how you feel about yourself on a daily basis. A revolution in natural black hair in the past several years means there are more proud waves, curls and kinks flying across the fields and down the lanes, or you can throw it into a ponytail weave. The list is long and prosaic. The struggle is real.


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Those edges gotta lay, that kitchen gotta go. Jazmine A. Smith founded the Eyekonz Sports League in Philadelphia for girls to compete in field hockey and lacrosse at the club level. Smith played basketball on scholarship and club field hockey at Kutztown University. She played basketball on scholarship and club field hockey at Kutztown University. She has thought long and hard about strategies for supporting black female athletes, including dealing with their hair.

Smith recalls a rainy-day game at West Philadelphia High School. Picture day was the next day. Because can you imagine being an athlete who will get in trouble if you sweat? It can keep black female athletes from playing their best, because doing so might make a sister look rough. And that brings up a whole other set of stereotypes, considerations and perils. Roach mentions an Instagram post she saw of a black woman juggling a soccer ball. Then the woman started twerking. That kind of behavior exists on the continuum of performance heterosexuality—and is perhaps a bit of overcompensation.


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  • On one hand, the fact that gay women can now be more out represents freedom. Those stigmas can be particularly acute for black athletes since black culture is underpinned by a religiosity and respectability politics that often censor LGBT expression. I wanted to find that guy and pummel him. Sometimes, different standards of physicality are more accepted, Roach says. And the weight gets heavier. But they do it on a field of play or court or pool, under more intense scrutiny, for a concentrated period of time, in the gaze of fans who might be drinking and who often feel entitled to take everything they do personally.

    Smith says she eventually was able to fuse her worlds as an athlete and a black woman. Now, before they take the field, she teaches her athletes black history and makes them say daily affirmations. Subscribe today! Coming next month: A new anthem for black female athletes. Yes, you can dance to it!

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    And three world-class athletes talk about the personal side of being a black woman in sports. Up Next. This formal fallacy is often mistaken for Modus Ponens, which is a valid form of reasoning also using a conditional. A conditional is an if-then statement; the if-part is the antecedent, and the then-part is the consequent. The following argument affirms the consequent that she does speaks Portuguese. If she's Brazilian, then she speaks Portuguese. Hey, she does speak Portuguese. So, she is Brazilian. If the arguer believes or suggests that the premises definitely establish that she is Brazilian, then the argumentation contains the fallacy.

    Any fallacy that turns on ambiguity. See the fallacies of Amphiboly , Accent , and Equivocation. Amphiboly is ambiguity of syntax. Equivocation is ambiguity of semantics. Accent is ambiguity of emphasis. This is an error due to taking a grammatically ambiguous phrase in two different ways during the reasoning. Did the owner suspect the dog was part wolf, or was not part wolf? Who knows? The sentence is ambiguous, and needs to be rewritten to remove the fallacy. Unlike Equivocation , which is due to multiple meanings of a phrase, Amphiboly is due to syntactic ambiguity, that is, ambiguity caused by multiple ways of understanding the grammar of the phrase.

    This is fallacious generalizing on the basis of a some story that provides an inadequate sample. If you discount evidence arrived at by systematic search or by testing in favor of a few firsthand stories, then your reasoning contains the fallacy of overemphasizing anecdotal evidence. Yeah, I've read the health warnings on those cigarette packs and I know about all that health research, but my brother smokes, and he says he's never been sick a day in his life, so I know smoking can't really hurt you.

    This is the error of projecting uniquely human qualities onto something that isn't human. The fallacy would be averted if the speaker had said "My dog is wagging his tail and running around me. Therefore, he is happy to see me. Your dog knows where it buried its bone, but not that you also know where the bone is. You appeal to authority if you back up your reasoning by saying that it is supported by what some authority says on the subject.

    Most reasoning of this kind is not fallacious, and much of our knowledge properly comes from listening to authorities. However, appealing to authority as a reason to believe something is fallacious whenever the authority appealed to is not really an authority in this particular subject, when the authority cannot be trusted to tell the truth, when authorities disagree on this subject except for the occasional lone wolf , when the reasoner misquotes the authority, and so forth.

    Although spotting a fallacious appeal to authority often requires some background knowledge about the subject or the authority, in brief it can be said that it is fallacious to accept the words of a supposed authority when we should be suspicious of the authority's words. This is a Fallacious Appeal to Authority because, although the president is an authority on many neighborhood matters, you are given no reason to believe the president is an authority on the composition of the moon.

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    It would be better to appeal to some astronomer or geologist. A TV commercial that gives you a testimonial from a famous film star who wears a Wilson watch and that suggests you, too, should wear that brand of watch is using a fallacious appeal to authority. The film star is an authority on how to act, not on which watch is best for you.

    Arguing that a belief is false because it implies something you'd rather not believe. Also called Argumentum Ad Consequentiam. That can't be Senator Smith there in the videotape going into her apartment.

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    If it were, he'd be a liar about not knowing her. He's not the kind of man who would lie.


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    He's a member of my congregation. Smith may or may not be the person in that videotape, but this kind of arguing should not convince us that it's someone else in the videotape. Your reasoning contains the Fallacy of Appeal to Emotions when someone's appeal to you to accept their claim is accepted merely because the appeal arouses your feelings of anger, fear, grief, love, outrage, pity, pride, sexuality, sympathy, relief, and so forth. Example of appeal to relief from grief:.

    I wish I could help somehow. I do have one idea. Now your family needs financial security even more. You need cash. I can help you. Just sign this standard sales agreement, and we can skip the realtors and all the headaches they would create at this critical time in your life. There is nothing wrong with using emotions when you argue, but it's a mistake to use emotions as the key premises or as tools to downplay relevant information.

    Regarding the Fallacy of Appeal to Pity , it is proper to pity people who have had misfortunes, but if as the person's history instructor you accept Max's claim that he earned an A on the history quiz because he broke his wrist while playing in your college's last basketball game, then you've used the fallacy of appeal to pity. The Fallacy of Appeal to Ignorance comes in two forms: 1 Not knowing that a certain statement is true is taken to be a proof that it is false.

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    The fallacy occurs in cases where absence of evidence is not good enough evidence of absence. The fallacy uses an unjustified attempt to shift the burden of proof. The fallacy is also called "Argument from Ignorance.