The first period gave us the first Russian matryoshka and developed a lot of new types which were put onto base of modern matryoshkas. Blossom of matryoshkas' types was interrupted by construction of socialism in the USSR. The Soviet Government paid much attention to construction of factories, which produced goods of people crafts!
Yes, this is right. The main problem is in it. Hand-made goods can not be made in factories — they are not mass production items. Private making of matryoshkas and production of other hand crafted things was forbidden in the USSR — craftsmen had to work at the factories where was no possibility neither to earn enough money for their labor rates were quite low as at other state enterprises nor to show their art abilities goods had to be simple enough for mass production.
I remember a story of old crafter from Polkhovsky Maidan about work in Soviet time. Those who did not work at the factory were not allowed to use home lathes for turning, electricity was "cut down".
Militia and representatives of power controlled road and railway stations to prevent possibility to carry to other regions of the country ready handicrafts to sell. It was easier to work at the factories of Semionovo where many new types of wooden toys were created. These toys and matryoshkas among them were exported to many countries of the world. In spite of that all things are too similar, they look like each other and they lack worm of hand made goods. The same happened with Sergiev Posad matryoshkas. The period of free work has finished.
Some simple types of dolls were produced at the factory. It is necessary to say that there were some people who created and painted original matryoshkas but it was not typical. Such matryoshka were bought by private collectors and now are quite rare.
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In the beginning of s when old economic system was destroying artists and talented artisans gained a freedom for creation of new type of matryoshkas and other crafts. During the Soviet time many factories all over the country made nesting dolls. Nobody was interested that it was impossible to bring together with tools and wood mastery of people and their skill.
Without native traditions matryoshka lost its charm and became an ordinary wooden toy, very primitive and simple. The only place where matryoshka found its new home was Kirov -the old city with deep root and traditions of wooden making. Now Kirov matryoshka has its own style and still is made at the factory.
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Late s Once at a tradition Saturday meeting somebody brought a funny Japanese figurine of a good-nature bold head old man Fukuruma. The first Russian nesting doll Why it is called "Matryoshka" This new wooden toy was called Matryoshka and there is no information who was the first to call the nesting doll by this name. Sergiev Posad style of Russian nesting dolls Until the end of 90s of 19 century the nesting dolls dolls were made in Moscow studio "Children's education," and after its closure production of nested dolls have moved to the training and demonstration workshops in Sergiev Posad near Moscow.
Painted nesting doll, Sergiev Posad, Larisa Soloviova, an author of a great book about Russian nested dolls divided development of this type of dolls into three periods: 1 s 2 s - beginning s 3 Beginning of s till this time. Nesting doll Ruslan and Ludmila, Sergiev Posad, Semionov style nesting dolls Semionov is a large old center of wooden handicrafts. Arsenty Mayorov Gradually a distinct matryoshka type of Semionovo was developed. Semionovo style The matryoshka of Semionovo are famous for containing many pieces.
The biggest matryoshka In the s artists from Semionovo developed new types of matryoshkas Artist Serov designed new matryoshka "The Father Frost and Snegurotchka". They were in cosmic flight Now Semionovo nesting dolls are made at the factory "Semionovskaya Rospis" and they continue old traditions.
Polkholvsky Maidan Russian nesting dolls Polkhovsky Maidan located to the south-west of Nizhny Novgorod km away from it.